Both of these areas became subject to progressive legislation during the Victorian era.
The Education Act of 1870 revolutionised primary education in Britain, and at the same time advanced democracy in the system of governance established. A year after Victoria's death further advances were made, although direct democracy in governance was replaced by representative democracy.
The same story is followed in the health sector with legislation passed on Public Health, including on water supplies and on housing. Hospitals were established with local control as were workhouses, where many people suffering from physical and mental ill health were placed, as well as in the medical facilities provided in Mental Asylums. Progress was also being made in medicine through the advances in science.
New professionalism was introduced into teaching (improved Teacher Training) and into Nursing (thanks to Miss Nightingale) and in the field of surgeons and doctors. One result of this was increased employment opportunities for Victorian women.